"One mask is hard to get" causes industry chaos, and the production enterprises of mask machine worry too much
"One mask is hard to get" causes industry chaos, and the production enterprises of mask machine worry too much
Source: Economic Daily
A month ago, many companies set off the climax of changing production of masks and mask machines; a month later, the companies have been suffering.
The reporter of securities times · e company visited several manufacturers of masks and mask machines on the spot, from the crowd to suffering words. Some mask manufacturers seek to make fast money, which eventually leads to the mire of mask and mask machine manufacturers.
Seven or eight young people sat on stools at the door of a Guangdong company that changed production of masks, playing with mobile phones idly, and looking up at trucks entering and leaving the factory from time to time. "They are all sent by customers to take delivery." The company's sales manager told the securities times E.
Pulling the mask machine to the workshop does not mean it can be used. Mask machine is a kind of mask with certain filtering performance, which is made of multi-layer non-woven fabric by hot pressing, folding forming, ultrasonic welding, scraping removal, ear belt and nose beam welding and other processes.
Li Bo (pseudonym), an engineer familiar with automation equipment, told the securities times · e company that the mask machine belongs to non-standard automation equipment, so-called "three to do, seven to adjust", without early debugging, it is not easy for the mask machine to reach the design capacity. "A large number of small enterprises are going to make money temporarily. They don't have any experience in the debugging of automation machinery. They think that the mask machine can be used when they buy it and connect it to the power supply. It's fantastic." Li Bo said.
But the high profit and the mentality of making fast money make the customers who order masks impatient. Assuming that the price of a complete set of fully automatic mask equipment is 400 thousand to 500 thousand yuan, 100 masks are produced per minute according to each mask machine, and the production is carried out in two shifts in 1 day, 96 thousand masks can be produced in 1 day, the single price is 2 yuan, and the net income in one day is 192 thousand yuan, which can be returned to the original within 3 days after delivery. In the future, you can earn as many days as you drive the machine.
According to previous statistics, 238 million people will need to wear masks every day when the secondary industry, medical industry, transportation industry and other industries return to work. If they return to work in an all-round way, according to the data of the fourth national economic census, the total employment population of domestic legal entities and self-employed households is 533 million people. At least 533 million masks are needed every day based on one mask per person.
In addition, at present, there are 260 million primary and secondary school students, 36.35 million high school students and college students in China. In the follow-up period, the daily average demand for masks is 296 million. In other words, in order to meet the needs of the whole society to return to work and school, the daily average demand for masks is 829 million. The current output is still far from enough.
Even after the rapid price rise of raw materials such as melt blown cloth, the high profit of masks still makes the participating businesses "grab the red eye". According to the latest data of tianyancha, there are more than 50000 registered enterprises, companies and units in China under the name of masks. By the end of February, the daily production capacity of masks in China has increased from 20 million to 116 million, more than five times.
"Both those who make fast money and those who promise the government to take photos of their chests and temporarily put on masks are rushing to buy masks." Yang Ming (a pseudonym), a director of the company that changed its production of masks in Shenzhen, told reporters.
How many enterprises want to make quick money? The sales manager of the company gave a group of figures: more than half of the orders received by the company are small enterprises that have ordered one or two sets of masks, without any previous experience in mask production.
In addition to making fast money, the so-called enterprises that buy masks to the government "promise to take chest pictures" are more aiming at subsidies.
In February 7th, novel coronavirus pneumonia supplies (equipment) enterprises were issued an urgent notice to expand the production of the equipment in support of the protection of new coronavirus pneumonia products, with the support of the Guangdong Provincial Department of finance. It is clear that the key equipment and key parts and other equipment enterprises that are registered in the province are equipped with key equipment such as masks, protective clothing sticks, negative pressure ambulances, and so on. The production and sales required by the material scheduling shall be rewarded, with the compensation period from February 7 to April 20, subject to the actual delivery or delivery time of the equipment, with the maximum amount of reward up to 50% of the price of the equipment, and the maximum reward for a single enterprise up to 30 million yuan.
Similar to the government subsidy policies of Guangdong, they are also being implemented in various places. Yang Ming pointed out that the government subsidy policy to expand the production capacity of manufacturers, eliminate the risk of manufacturers. But it is inevitable that government subsidies not only encourage enterprises to produce and buy masks, but also attract a variety of speculators.
Rush up production capacity
"No one thought that the order of mask machine would be so large." On March 12, a reporter from securities times · e company met Wang Yi (pseudonym), the president of the company, in the workshop of the aforementioned converted mask machine. He said he was full of pressure and helplessness when he talked about the industry chaos of the converted mask machine.
The original main business of the enterprise is the manufacturing of automatic equipment, with mature experience in the production of automatic equipment, and the technical requirements of mask machine are not high. After confirming with the upstream supplier that the spare parts are sufficient, the enterprise decided to quickly switch to the production of mask machine.
And this is just a miniature of the "national mask machine". Since February, there have been many listed companies that have announced the conversion of mask machines. Listed companies such as A-share Technology University intelligence, Evonik technology, golden sun, tostar, Nanxing and Zhiyun also set foot in mask machine production.
There are many small and medium-sized private enterprises turning to produce masks. According to incomplete statistics from the industry, more than 500 automation equipment companies in the Pearl River Delta region alone announced the production of masks after the Spring Festival, most of which are new production capacity and are still increasing.
Shi Hao, chairman of Shenzhen Electronic Equipment Industry Association, said that after the outbreak of the epidemic, there were forty or fifty enterprises in Shenzhen's industrial chain of converted masks, and defulai company, located in Baoan Songgang Jiancang Industrial Park, was one of the companies that joined in the conversion of masks. Tu Guoquan, chairman of the board of directors, told the media that the company began to prepare R & D forces on January 27 to transform the automatic production line of mask machine. The first batch of full-automatic mask production line was delivered to Sinopec on February 23.
Central enterprises have also joined in the manufacturing of masks. The state owned assets supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council has organized six central enterprises, namely, aviation industry group, China shipbuilding group, ordnance industry group, China Electronics, state machinery group and general technology group, to urgently carry out joint research and development, and to launch 28 models of equipment research and development in just over ten days. By the end of February, 6 enterprises had started to supply the strip presses in batches, and the masks had also taken out prototype machines, which had the conditions for batch supply. At present, the production capacity of about 35-40 molding machines, about 25-30 plane masks and about 3-5 stereo masks per day has been preliminarily provided.
"There are more than 1000 parts of a mask machine, and there is no technical threshold for enterprises with precision manufacturing related capabilities." According to Wang Yi, "the special automation equipment requires a very high precision, but the precision of the mask machine only needs to be in millimeter level, and the mask machine equipment is relatively simple."
However, with a large number of enterprises put into the production of mask machine, the rapid change of the situation makes the transition of enterprises unexpected.
"In front of the huge profits of masks, everyone lost his mind." Facing the customers waiting for delivery outside the factory gate, Wang Yi fell into an unexpected passive situation. From the beginning of drawing design and emergency development during the Spring Festival, Wang Yi's company is the first one in the industry to respond and realize production conversion. Due to the early communication with upstream suppliers, Wang Yi said that according to the situation at that time, the daily production capacity of the company was more than 30 sets, and the delivery period was about 20-25 days, so there was no problem to meet the order demand.
With the enterprises all over the country expanding their production and changing to production, the upstream parts are in short supply, and the enterprises have been unable to achieve the delivery as scheduled.
"Because of the delay in delivery, the scene was out of control." Wang Yi said that some customers wait for goods at the company's door, and when they get out of a machine, they take one away, and they don't give the company debugging time. What's more, when they directly enter the workshop and see the mask machine, they claim the equipment they bought for themselves and ask to pull it away; even some extreme customers directly pull the parts, saying that they have the ability to assemble without the assistance of the company.
Wang Yi is not the only one who suffers. Yang Ming said that the employees of his company run continuously every day, but due to the constraints of spare parts supply, transfer workers and other factors, the current contradiction of insufficient production capacity of respirator machine is very prominent, and the order delivery of many enterprises is still delayed.
Deferred chargeback in a whirlpool
Under the outbreak, everyone became impatient.
Limited by the upstream supply, the mask manufacturer can't deliver the products on time, so the late return has become a helpless choice. The company that changed production of the mask machine also issued a notice letter recently, apologizing for the delay in delivery of the mask machine and proposing a 20 day delay in delivery. Wang Yi said that it was helpless to make the above arrangements. Now some of the masks have been unsubscribed, and will continue to speed up production to complete the remaining orders.
At present, limited by factors such as the complexity of processing, the lack of experienced technicians in the supply of spare parts and the adjustment of machinery, the company's holding subsidiary's production capacity of mask machines is limited and the delivery of orders is difficult to achieve the expected results, the listed company said on the interactive platform on March 4.
As one of the top five traditional manufacturers of face mask machine in China, Dongguan kuaiyuda automation equipment Co., Ltd. directly printed the words "our company's order is full, no order will be received temporarily" on the official website. "The factory has limited capacity and has stopped receiving orders and related quotations," said kuaiyuta
According to the industry forecast, when the domestic output of masks reaches 200 million in the future, according to the standard mask machine, the market capacity of the mask machine is estimated to be about 3000. If there is an endless increase in the number of mask makers, when the epidemic improves and the masks are no longer in short supply, the mask makers that follow the trend will become a stock.
In fact, there have been warnings in the industry recently. On March 2, the Shenzhen Medical Device Industry Association issued a special document to remind the risk, calling on small and medium-sized enterprises to be cautious in the production of masks. The article mentioned that, at present, some enterprises are unable to complete the delivery of masks on time due to various reasons.
Recently, Guangdong Medical Device Management Association issued a document, which also made suggestions and guidelines for enterprises interested in the production of respirators and other prevention and control medical device products. According to the document, in view of the global spread of the epidemic, there are also enterprises planning to transfer to export, but the export products need to obtain the relevant certification of each region, with a long certification period and a large market risk. Therefore, it is suggested that the majority of enterprises should fully review their own conditions after fully investigating the market situation and taking full account of production environment, equipment, raw materials, personnel, technology and other factors, Put into production prudently.